Over the last few years, human microfragmented adipose tissue (MFAT), containing significant levels of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and obtained from fat lipoaspirate (LP) through a minimal manipulation in a closed system device, has been successfully used in aesthetic medicine as well as in orthopedic and general surgery. Interestingly, in orthopedic diseases, this ready-to-use adipose tissue cell derivative seems to have a prolonged time efficacy even upon a single shot injection into osteoarthritic tissues. Here, we investigated the long-term survival and content of MSCs as well the anti-inflammatory activity of LP and its derived MFAT in vitro, with the aim to better understand a possible in vivo mechanism of action. MFAT and LP specimens from 17 human donors were investigated side by side. During a long-term culture in serum-free medium, we found that the total cell number as well the MSC content in MFAT decreased more slowly if compared to those from LP specimens. The analysis of cytokines and growth factors secreted into the conditioned medium (CM) was similar in MFAT and LP during the first week of culture, but the total amount of cytokines secreted by LP decreased much more rapidly than those produced by MFAT during prolonged culture (up to 28 days). Similarly, the addition of MFAT-CM recovered at early (3-7 days) and late stage (14-28 days) of culture strongly inhibited inflammatory function of U937 monocyte cell line, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of LP-CM was drastically reduced after only 7 days of culture. We conclude that MFAT is an effective preparation with a long-lasting anti-inflammatory activity probably mediated by a long-term survival of their MSC content that releases a combination of cytokines that affect several mechanisms involved in inflammation processes.